De verdieping: keuze uit de collectie
Nieuwe presentatie van werk uit eigen collectie
Op de Verdieping in CODA is een permanente collectiepresentatie ingericht met hoogtepunten uit de CODA collectie. Van keramiek en design tot beeldende kunst, sieraden en keramiek; hier zie je objecten, voorwerpen en kunstwerken uit de verschillende deelcollecties van CODA. De objecten in deze presentatie worden regelmatig gewisseld zodat er nieuwe, actuele verbindingen gelegd kunnen worden. De vaste collectiepresentatie is vrij toegankelijk en bevindt zich op de plek van het voormalige CODA Café aan de museumzijde van het CODA gebouw.
CODA Museum besteedt aandacht aan regionaal en lokaal erfgoed en toont hedendaagse kunst en vormgeving. De historische collectie van CODA verhaalt over de geschiedenis van Apeldoorn en de Veluwe en bevat ook objecten en deelcollecties die van (inter)nationale betekenis zijn. Een goed voorbeeld is de collectie houten ADO speelgoed. Een bijzondere en unieke deelcollectie is de collectie sieraden.
CODA directeur Carin Reinders: “De collectie van CODA vormt de ruggengraat van het museum en van onze tentoonstellingsprogrammering. Werk uit eigen collectie maakt dan ook al jaren deel uit van bloemlezingen, thematische tentoonstellingen en monografische presentaties. Na de eerste herinrichting van CODA is er een prachtige ruimte vrijgekomen waar we plaats bieden aan de eigen collectie. Er is geen chronologie aangebracht maar de presentatie is thematisch ingericht. De samenstelling zullen we regelmatig wisselen. Zo blijven we bezoekers verrassen en kunnen we aansluiten op en verbinding leggen met de actualiteit. Het is een dynamische en prikkelende opstelling waarin collectiestukken uit verschillende periodes een dialoog met elkaar aangaan.”
Kijk, geniet en laat je verrassen!
De collectie sieraden van CODA is met ruim 10.000 objecten de grootste museale collectie wereldwijd. De sieraden van CODA zijn echter maar zelden aan te raken, laat staan dat ze gepast kunnen worden. CODA ontwikkelde in samenwerking met Studio JUST digitale passpiegels. Met deze spiegels, een QR code, voor CODA ontwikkelde Instagramfilters en de selfiemodus van een telefoon ontdekken bezoekers hoe topstukken uit de CODA collectie hen staan. De filters zijn ook na een museumbezoek thuis te gebruiken door op de Instagrampagina van CODA (@codaapeldoorn) boven de foto’s en video’s op het icoon met drie sterren te klikken. Express Yourself sluit aan op de behoefte en wens om de collectie interactief te presenteren en op deze tijd waarin mode, zelfexpressie en social media belangrijk zijn.
DE VERDIEPING A selection from the CODA collection
CODA Museum focusses on regional and local heritage and shows contemporary art and design. CODA’s historical collection, which tells of Apeldoorn and the Veluwe’s past, includes objects and subcollections of (inter)national significance. The collection of wooden ADO toys is a good example.
A special and unique subcollection is the jewellery collection, which, with over 10,000 objects, is the largest museological collection of modern jewellery in the world. This collection charts the development of jewellery from the 1960s to the present. CODA shows jewellery in all its manifestations: from author’s jewellery presented as small sculptures to costume jewellery, where the wearer is at least as important as the maker. Exhibitions in CODA show how jewellery relates to fashion, design, innovation, technology, handicraft, and other visual arts.
In this presentation, we display the highlights of our own collection, which consists of over 30,000 objects. We change the objects regularly, thus connecting to the world around us in new and relevant ways.
Look, enjoy and let yourself be amazed!
Adornment and decoration are as old as humanity itself, and jewellery has been a symbol of wealth, power and status since time immemorial. Wearing jewellery is also a way of expressing a personal or social stance, or of emphasising one’s own identity. A piece of jewellery tells a personal story and invites a conversation between the wearer and whoever notices the adornment. Moreover, jewellery has long been part of fashion, in which ever-different accessories play an important role.
CODA’s jewellery collection consists of both artist’s jewellery and costume jewellery. Artist’s jewellery is made by visual artists who see jewellery as a fully-fledged and autonomous medium. The term costume jewellery, or fashion jewellery, applies to jewellery that is not made using precious metals and gemstones but that carries significance due to intrinsic quality or because it represents a specific era.
During the 1960s, views on jewellery change. To many jewellery makers, design and concept become more important than appreciation of the materials used. Jewellery is increasingly made of cheaper materials like stainless steel, rubber or plastic. Pioneers like Gijs Bakker and Emmy van Leersum follow this development, creating geometric designs out of light-weight materials like aluminium, in a restrained style that is often called ‘Hollands Glad’ (Dutch Smooth). These developments and this zeitgeist can also be traced in the jewellery and household objects of Nicolaas Thuys. Whereas his earlier work from the 1950s is still decorated with floral and animal motifs, his later work reflects his preference for geometric and simple forms, austere lines and materials like silver, steel and Perspex.
Over the course of the 1970s, there is mounting resistance against the ‘Hollands Glad’ of designers like Gijs Bakker and Emmy van Leersum. Jewellery artists want to work outside the restrictions that austere, formal jewellery and the restrained geometric style impose. This leads to a new movement: de Bond van Oproerige Edelsmeden (Union of Rebellious Goldsmiths) or BOE group. The BOE group is an initiative of Berend Peter, Onno Boekhoudt, Marion Herbst, Karel Niehorster and Françoise van
den Bosch. They share a longing for more freedom and fun, and they strive for recognition of jewellery as an art object. They do not just want to show the end result, but also the concept behind it and the way towards it. The BOE box you see here is based on those ideas. Each compartment contains loose parts with no clear function. The changed zeitgeist is also expressed in the work of Maria Hees. She makes jewellery from everyday objects like garden hoses and hair brushes. Teacher and student CODA’s jewellery collection consists of jewellery from several decades. This allows us to establish beautiful and insightful connections between teacher and student. This is why CODA not only collects the work of influential jewellery designers and teachers like Dorothea Prühl (1937) and Onno Boekhoudt (1944-2002); the work of their students is also included in the CODA collection. The oeuvre of Lucy Sarneel and Annelies Planteijdt, for example, shows the influence of their teacher Onno Boekhoudt. The same applies to the works of Andrea Wipperman, who was taught by Dorothea Prühl.
Thanks to financial support from the Mondriaan Fonds, CODA Museum was able to acquire Onno Boekhoudt’s complete designer’s archive. A designer’s archive can provide insight into a designer’s work and thought process. In Boekhoudt’s case, it was not so much the end result, the piece of jewellery, that was important, but rather the way that result was achieved. Students can study his archive and so gather information about his work process.
Jewellery and Expression
During the 1980s, jewellery increasingly became a means of expression and a way for people to emphasise their personality and their position in the public debate. Jewellery artists like Paul Derrez and Ruudt Peters explore the boundaries of jewellery (design) during this period.
In line with the vibrancy and lavishness of the 80s, artists like Gijs Bakker and Onno Boekhoudt experimented with colour, material and form. The difference – and with that, the developments – becomes apparent when you compare Bakker’s Dauwdruppel from 1983 with one of his bracelets from the 60s. Artists like LAM de Wolf and Robert Smit consider jewellery to be autonomous visual art, with wearability being of lesser importance. Teacher and student A teacher’s influence is not limited to form and technique but can also consist of direction and motivation. Onno Boekhoudt’s successor at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie is visual artist and jewellery maker Ruudt Peters (1950). He notices how original the crocheting of his student Felieke van der Leest is, and encourages her to use crocheting in jewellery making. When she graduates in 1996, her graduation project consists exclusively of jewellery that is sewn, crocheted or knitted. Over the years, Van der Leest’s jewellery has become more complex and more ‘tableau’-like in nature. The techniques she uses have remained unchanged, however. A multitude of voices The developments in jewellery design show that there is not one dominant movement, but that the artist’s approach and method are leading. (The concept and design of) jewellery develops in various ways, for instance from the form, colour or material, or from the concept or the mood that the artist wants to evoke with the work.
Many jewellery artists consider jewellery to be an autonomous visual art, just like sculpture or painting. To others, wearability and durability come first. In the Netherlands and abroad, both classic and unconventional materials are still used today. Ted Noten, for example, makes brooches from chewing gum, entitled Chew your own brooch. The gum is handed out and then sent back to the artist. Noten uses the chewed shapes as moulds for brooches made of silver and gold. There is also jewellery made of thumbtacks, Perspex and objects like buttons, brushes, crockery, and even a laptop.
The ADO toys in the CODA collection are not only inextricably linked to a piece of local history, but also reflect major innovations in art during the first half of the twentieth century. The wooden toys, designed by Ko Verzuu (1901-1971) were produced by tuberculosis patients in sanatorium Berg en Bosch in Apeldoorn, as part of their occupational therapy. Verzuu draws inspiration from De Stijl and the great artists of his day, like Rietveld and Mondriaan. They prefer simple designs and encourage the use of primary colours. This ties in seamlessly with the simplicity that Verzuu wants to achieve. The use of geometric shapes, primary colours and bright, contrasting colours can be traced in his doll’s houses and toy cars.
To this day, designers and artists are inspired by the principles of De Stijl. The austere, strong lines and use of colour can be found in the chairs of Gijs Bakker, for instance. Machteld Rullens, a young artist, also uses geometric shapes and colours in her artworks, which consist of painted cardboard boxes with epoxy resin.
In 2009, with financial support from the Mondriaan Fonds, SNS REAAL Fonds and the Vereniging MuseumVrienden van CODA, CODA acquired almost three hundred ADO toys.
For centuries, the province of Gelderland has been synonymous with paper and cardboard production. The many brooks, springs and rivers made the Veluwe region an ideal location for the construction of paper mills. The first paper mills appeared as early as 1590, and with eight out of the eighteen Dutch paper manufacturers and the historic paper mill De Middelste Molen, Gelderland and the Veluwe still form the heart of the country’s paper and cardboard industry.
Because of this long regional history of paper production, CODA has collected many heritage objects related to paper and contemporary paper art, over the years. Here you see some historical objects, but also the work of Couzijn van Leeuwen (1959-2019). The Coda collection includes a considerable number of his works, and his artworks have been part of several editions of CODA Paper Art. His Jungle installation in CODA Bibliotheek’s atrium is the last artwork he completed before his death in 2019. The most recent addition to the collection is a work made of paper pulp, created by artist Wouter Venema (1985). In his work, and that of many contemporary artists, sustainability and recycling are important factors.
Artists use clay in surprising and very different ways: from experimental glazes and off-white porcelain to new, innovative techniques like 3D printing. An example are the small vases made by J.H. Andrée, a famous ceramist from Apeldoorn. Looking at his ceramic work, you can see how he never stopped experimenting during his career, and how the continuous development of his glazes led to stunning results. CODA’s collection also includes ceramic household objects. Objects like the ceramic souvenir plates that used to be sold at attractions like the Julianatoren and Echoput.
Ceramic materials are also regularly used in jewellery, for instance in Maria Hees’ necklace Amulet. CODA recently acquired various pieces of jewellery made by Judith Bloedjes. Over the years, she has built up an impressive oeuvre, working with Limoges porcelain and silver.
Costume jewellery gains popularity at the beginning of the twentieth century, when designers like Coco Chanel and Elsa Schiaparelli dispel the notion that jewellery should be synonymous with gold, silver and gemstones. Coco Chanel does not shrink from combining real pearls with their synthetic counterparts. This not only lowers the price of jewellery, it also makes jewellery accessible to a larger group of people. As a result, jewellery becomes a fashion statement and a means of expression, rather than a status symbol.
In order to imitate precious stones and diamonds, manufacturers like Swarovski develop new technologies. Jewellery designers like Joseff of Hollywood, Miriam Haskell and Trifari rise to fame alongside Hollywood stars, who become more and more popular during the 40s and 50s.
Historical costume jewellery is about glitter and glamour, with designers often creating large, vibrant pieces of jewellery that keep pace with developments in fashion. Nowadays, jewellery is also used to make political statements, like Bas Kosters’s buttons or the Schiaparelli peace dove that Lady Gaga wore during the inauguration of American President Joe Biden.
In 1917, the firm ‘Verbeek en Schakel, grossierderij in rijwielen en onderdelen’ (traders in cycles and parts) is opened on 169 Apeldoornse Hoofdstraat. Initially, the firm only makes bicycles, but in 1931 mopeds and motorcycles are added to the range of products. Under the name Sparta, this small local bike shop grows into one of the major Dutch manufacturers of (motor)cycles and mopeds.
During the crisis years, after the war, few people can afford a car, which causes Sparta to become immensely popular. As Dutch traffic gets busier and gains speed, there is a growing demand for heavier, more powerful models. This model – the 250cc Victoria from 1951 with a duo seat and enough power to pull a sidecar – is Sparta’s showcase. The company’s slogan is in tune with the times: Sparta, de sleutel tot een rijker leven (Sparta, the key to a richer life). But rising wealth means that more and more people can afford the cars produced by DAF, Volkswagen and Fiat. Motorcycle sales plummet, and Sparta sells its last motorcycle in 1961.